Frequently Asked Questions

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The SAN++® Series of continuous flow analyzers consist of the :

  1. SAN++® Compact - small footprint and compact design, but the same high level of automation.

  2. SAN++® Advanced - highest capacity unit with extended possibilities

  3. SAN++® Classic - based on our traditional unit, ideal for simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters

  • Water
  • Wastewater
  • Ground water
  • Surface water
  • Drinking water
  • Seawater
  • Soil, plant and fertilizer
  • Tobacco
  • Food & Beverages (Wine, Beer, Milk etc.)
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Detergents
  • Mining

Yes, it is possible to use the analyzer beyond the regular working hours due to the automatic start up and shut down function.

Nutrients in water (all types) such as ammonia, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, sulphate, silicate, total nitrogen, total phosphate

Pollutants in water (all types) such as cyanide, phenol, anionic surfactants and chromium (VI)

Soil & fertilizer: (Total) nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) – which are the most important and primary nutrients for crops. Nitrogen can be measured in its various forms als- ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3) & urea (CH4N2O) and likewise orthophosphate (o-PO4)

Secondary nutrients and microelements such as calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), magnesium (Mg) and boron (B).

Beer & malt: color, SO2,, iron, bitterness, thiobarbituric Acid Value (TBZ),pH, polyphenol, free amino nitrogen (FAN), anthocyanogen, beta (β) glucan etc.

Tobacco: ammonia, glucose/fructose/saccharose, nitrate+nitrite, phosphate, nicotine/total alkaloids, chloride, cyanide, total reducing sugars.

This is only a selection of the most common parameters and application fields. Contact us to discuss your specific requirements.

Most configurations are supplied with 2 – 6 parameters though a maximum of 16 is possible and such configurations are installed and in operation worldwide across multiple industries. This is achieved by additional module holders – which can be done easily at the customer site if the requirements of a laboratory change after initial installation.

The entire Skalar autosampler range offers the possibility to work with at least two (2) sample matrices – though larger models offer analysis of up to four (4) separate sample matrices simultaneously. This is achieved with additional needles that are connected to the relevant modules for that matrix.

The SAN++® Series range of detectors comprises digital dual channel colorimetric detectors, the unique digital matrix correction detector with automatic background correction for specific sample matrixes, but also covers a range of detectors for UV, Fluorimetry, ISE, Flame Photometry, pH meter,etc.

The SAN++® Series is able to fully automate many manual, time-consuming and traditionally-costly pretreatment and sample handling steps such as: Distillation , dialysis, phase separation etc.

San series continuous flow analyzer - close up coil
Which analytical steps are automated on the SAN++® Series chemistry modules?

Depending on the application and final configurations / parameter combination, sample throughputs of 80-100 samples per hour are possible. Considering the simultaneous analysis of parameters, this could translate into around 500 – 600 individual results per hour.

Both in order to serve our customers worldwide and as a result of doing so for more than forty years, all Skalar methods comply with a vast number of national and international norms (ISO, EPA, DIN etc.) as well as a number of industry-specific standards and norms (EBC, MEBAK, Coresta)

This depends on the parameters being run – though it should be noted that as this is automation of well-established chemical methods, the chemicals remain the same as in manual methods. A full list of required chemicals is supplied to customers prior to installation of their system to allow them to prepare accordingly.

In the fourth episode of our Skalar FAQ video series, Al Yates, East Division Manager at Skalar Inc., provides expert answers to the top 5 questions about the SAN++® Series continuous flow analyzers.

FAQ SAN Series thumnail
FAQ video - SAN++® Series

3.5 mL cups and 10m mL cups are available

Thermostable environment regulated at 8-20°C. Can be adjusted via the DiscreteAccess software package.

Yes, digested samples can be analysed … e.g. TP /TKN

24 containers 50 ml + 8 containers 10 ml

Three (3) – meaning maximum onboard capacity of 150 mL per reagent

400 μL

  1. The use of disposable cuvettes in the BLUVISION® system prevents possible contamination/carryover between highly and low-concentrated samples. In general, discrete analysis does not provide any indication of sample carryover as no graphs or real times can be evaluated -we only see the measurement result. With this in mind, Skalar has deliberately chosen the use of disposable cuvettes so that carryover between such samples cannot take place.
  2. In case of discrepancy, washable cuvettes require that the sample is analyzed a second time to verify the result and to provide the same certainty disposable ones provide in the first place. Especially at lower concentrations, the use of single-use cuvettes results in a significantly better measurement accuracy as the proximity of a highly concentrated sample to a low-concentrated sample cannot distort the measurement result.

Yes, the needle can be changed easily. Some settings must be checked after doing so.

45 ˚C

The lifetime of the lamp is longer than the lifetime of the instrument. In case change is required, please contact us.

Customer decides which type of waste needs to be separated. Based on this, the container to which cuvettes from a certain analyses are ejected is specified in the method in the software.

350 mL/min – switches off automatically at the end of analyses.

  1. Priority samples can be added via the touchscreen and the analyses scheduled/assigned via the DiscreteAccess software package.
  2. Priority parameters can be set in the DiscreteAccess software package.

It evaluates reaction times, number of tests and ensures greatest number of simultaneous/processes are performed. Priority parameters can be set by the operator.

Yes. Constant level sensing of sample and reagent volumes with the sample needle throughout analysis provides real time information on this

Explore the BLUVISION® discrete analyzer through our informative Skalar FAQ video series, delving into its capabilities and applications.

FAQ video - BLUVISION® discrete analyzer
  1. The FORMACS HT-i model is using 8 ml test tubes (80 positions)
  2. The FORMACS HT model can be equipped with:
    1. 15 ml test tubes (150 positions)
    2. 20 ml septum sealed VOA vials (90 positions)
    3. 40 ml septum sealed VOA vials (90 positions)
    4. 125 ml beakers (25 positions)

The samples are stirred with a top strirrer. The stirring speed is controlled by the software. Alternatively, the samples can be stirred with a magnetic stirrer. On the FORMACS HT model the magnetic stirring functionality is standard. On the FORMACS HT-i model the magnetic stirring functionality is optional.

Yes, the FORMACS Series TOC analyzers can dilute samples automatically. This dilution functionality can be used to pre-dilute samples, create calibration standard from a stock solution and automatic post dilution of overrange samples.

The maximum temperature of the combustion furnace is 950 °C. The combustion temperature is a setting in the software and can be assigned to specific sample matrices. This way sample matrices can be combusted at the optimal combustion temperature. It is also possible to use different combustion temperature within the same measurement run.

The software of the FORMACS Series analyzers has the possibility to activate “Smart Sparging”. When Smart Sparging is activated, the analyser will use one injection to measure the IC level of the sample. If IC is still present, then the sparging/acidification is automatically extended.

Yes, the FORMACS Series analyzer can optionally be equipped with a Saline sample kit. This kit contains a ceramic combustion tube which is inert to salts.

Yes, it is possible to add samples to a measurement. The priority of samples (existing and added) can be set. It is also possible to dynamically change the priority of samples in an ongoing measurement.

Yes, the FORMACS Series TOC analyzers are using a thermal catalytic combustion of the sample to determine TC and NPOC and a reaction of the sample with an acidic medium in a reactor to determine TIC. This is in compliance with international standards like e.g. ISO 20236, ISO 8245, EN 1484, Standard Method 5310B, ASTM D2579, EPA 415.1, AOAC 973.47​

Yes, the FORMACS Series analyzer can be extended with the optional ND25 TN-detector. The NO produced by the thermal catalytic combustion of the sample can be measured with this optional CLD detector.

In this episode of our Skalar FAQ video series, Luuk v/h Hof, Nordic Countries regional manager, provides expert answers to the top 5 questions about the FORMACS™ Series.

FAQ #5 - Luuk van het Hof
Skalar FAQ Videos - Episode 5: FORMACS™ Series

The sample tray of the PRIMACS SNC-100 analyzer has a capacity for 100 samples.

The PRIMACS SNC-100 is available in different configurations. The available parameters that can be combined are: total carbon, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, elemental carbon and total nitrogen.

The PRIMACS SNC-100 analyzer is using a temperature ramping profile according to EN 17505 / DIN19539 for the differentiation of different carbon species. The measured carbon species are according to EN17505/DIN19539 reported as TOC400, ROC and TIC900. The ROC parameter has a direct correlation with the presence of elemental carbon in the sample.

Yes, on the PRIMACS SNC-100 a method can be created that uses a temperature ramping profile for the combustion. The analyzer is using a patented technique for the required temperature changes in the temperature profile. Instead of keeping the sample in a stationary opposition and changing the oven temperature at the sample location the analyzer transports the sample to a part of the oven that has the required temperature. This eliminates the need for the furnace to cool down between samples and allows a speed of temperature changes that are impossible on a classical furnace setup.

The analyzer is equipped with a TIC reactor. The sample is put in an IC-vial on the sampler, the sampler automatically transports the vial with the sample to the IC reactor. In this reactor the vials are heated up to 150 °C and a large volume of phosphoric acid is added to the sample. The CO2 created by the reaction between the carbonates and the acid is sparged from the sample/acid mixture and measured with an IR-detector.

The analyzer determines the TOC by the difference method (TOC=TC-IC ); the TC concentration of a sample with a high temperature combustion in the furnace, another portion of the sample is analyzed with a reaction with acid in the TIC reactor. Then the software calculates the TOC concentration. Alternatively, the sample can be pre-treated during the manual sample preparation and the remaining TOC is determined with a high temperature combustion in the furnace.

The fully automated difference method on the PRIMACS SNC-100 eliminates both the need to manually pre-treat the sample with acid and also the subsequent need to dry the sample for several hour after this acidification. As the TIC measurement is done at a raised temperature (150 °C) and with a surplus of acid (3 ml of acid) the automated IC measurement on the Primacs is analytical very robust. There is no risk that not all the IC is removed (not enough acid) , that the sample is not dried properly or that volatile organic carbon is removed during the drying process. Risks that are present when IC needs to be removed in the sample pre-treatment process.

Explore the top 5 frequently asked questions about the PRIMACS™ Series with expert insights from Andrew Williams

FAQ Primacs 2
FAQ video - PRIMACS™ Series

Both in order to serve our customers worldwide and as a result of doing so for more than forty years, all Skalar methods comply with a vast number of national and international norms (ISO, EPA, DIN etc.) as well as a number of industry-specific standards and norms (EBC, MEBAC, Coresta)

Yes – this can be done manually via a handheld (USB) reader, or an integrated barcode reader can take this information from sample tubes automatically.

Depending on factors such as required batch size, required sample volume and norm specifications, Skalar supplies a wide range sample tubes and containers to optimise the configuration it supplies. It is fully possible for modifications to be made to standard configurations to accommodate customer-specific sample vessels (we usually ask for these to be sent in advance to ensure full and correct testing).

Yes – the customer is able to specify what information is reported, displayed and various user-level privileges can be granted for accessing this information. Customer and method-specific calculations can also be programmed and implemented to ensure individual needs are met at all times and in all cases.

Andrew Williams answers key queries about our automated BOD solution.

FAQ BOD Andrew
FAQ video - SP2000 BOD analyzer

Jonathan Clements answers key topics about our automated Testkit solution.

Jonathan Clements
FAQ video - SP2000 Testkit analyzer